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Mesopotamia

 

  Visit the British Museum

Visit the British Museum

 

The word 'Mesopotamia' is in origin a Greek name (mesos `middle' and 'potamos' - 'river' so `land between the rivers'). 'Mesopotamia' translated from Old Persian Miyanrudan means "the fertile cresent". Aramaic name being Beth-Nahrain "House of Two Rivers") and in Arabic :ما بين النهرين .

The rivers are the Tigris and Euphrates which flow through modern Iraq. The Euphrates also flows through much of Syria.

    Visit the Metropolitan Museum  

 

    for comprehensive details on Mesopotamia.    Visit the Metropolitan Museum

 

 

Brief Timeline 4000-1000 BC

  • 4000 BC - Sumerians arrive in Mesopotamia.
     

  • 3800 BC - Sumerians supplant Ubaidians in Mesopotamia and start cities.
     

  • 2800 BC - Kish, the dominant city, challenged by Lagash; Semites dominate Kish.
     

  • 2700 BC - Sumerian King, Gilgamesh, rules the city of Uruk.
     

  • 2340 BC - Sargon (a Sumerian in the city of Kish) overthrows the Sumerian king of Nippur. Sargon's new  kingdom is called Akkad; Sargon extends his kingdom to Syria.
     

  • 2320 BC - Sargon conquers Sumer.
     

  • 2230 BC- Akkadian dynasty ends.
     

  • 2150 BC - Nomadic Gutians overruns Akkadians and Sumer, but Sumer revives.
     

  • 2130 BC - Sumer regains independence from Akkadian rule.
     

  • 2000 BC - Hittites migrate to Asia Minor.
     

  • 1950 BC - Elamites from Zagros attack Sumer. They overrun the Syrian Amorites.
    Amorites go to Babylon to create colonies with Ashur as center of a kingdom that will be called Assyria.
     

  • 1753 BC - Ammorite King Hammurabi conquers all of Sumer. Hammurabi rules to 1750BC. His empire lasts until 1600BC, when the Kassites conquer most of Mesopotamia.
     

  • 1800 Kassites defeat the Babylonians.
     

  • 1593 BC - Hittites sack Babylon and end Hammurabi's dynasty.
     

  • 1365 BC - Ashur the Great, King of Assyria marries his daughter to a Babylonian.
     

  • 1300 BC -The Assyrians control all of Mesopotamia.
     

  • 1200 BC - Hittites' capital Hattusas is wiped out (plague); Phrygians move in.
     

  • 1000 BC - Assyrian Empire.

 

 

 

Map of  Modern Iraq

 

 

The Iraqi Flag Story

        

 

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